DEVELOPMENT OF NEPHROLOGY IN SERBIA
The first records on treatment and research of kidney diseases
The treatment of kidney diseases can be traced back in the mediaeval Serbian medicine. A paper on uroscopy (Chilandari medical codex no.517) specifies that conclusions on the nature and severity of diseases were drawn on the basis of appearance of urine. Mediaeval treatment handbooks contain recommendations on treatment of kidney diseases. Thus, the Code od Hodosh and Medical Typicon, written in 1330, prescribe cure against anuria. In Breviary of Dechani from 14th century and some subsequent breviaries contain prayers against urine retention.
Development of modern nephrology
Over centuries nephrology was developing within internal medicine and pediatrics. It was not before the second half of the 20th century that the rapid development of nephrology began. This development was particularly stimulated by the introduction of renal biopsy as well as by two revolutionary therapeutic methods – dialysis (haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) and kidney transplantation. The International Society of Nephrology was founded in Paris in 1960 and the first President was Jean Hamburger (1960-1963). That same year, the First International Congress of Nephrology was held in Geneva and Evian.In September 1963, shortly before the London Symposium on Acute Kidney Failure, three renowned nephrologists Stanley Shaldon, William Drukker and David Kerr, made arrangements to found the European Dialysis Association. A year later, in September 1964, European Dialysis and Transplant Association EDTA, nowadays ERA-EDTA, was founded in Amsterdam.
In the late 1950s nephrology in Serbia started to develop rapidly. Vojislav Danilović described endemic nephropathy and the research in this area contributed significantly to the further development of nephrology in our country. In the late 1950s and early 1960s the World Health Organization enabled an advanced training in nephrology for a few of our physicians (Vasilije Jovanović, Staven Savin, Sveto Suša, Nada Čalić-Perišić, Branislav Stojimirović). Upon their return to the country, they were appointed heads of specialized nephrology units.
The first haemodialysis in Serbia was performed at Belgrade City Hospital in 1962. It was applied for the treatment of acute renal failure by Dr Vasilije Jovanović, who was also the first to introduce peritoneal dialyses in 1963 and in 1969 he initiated a programme of regularly repeated haemodialysis for treatment of patients in end-stage renal disease. This was followed by a rapid development of haemodialysis centres, so in 1980s there were twenty-six haemodialysis centres in Serbia. The first successful kidney transplantation in Serbia was performed at the Clinic of urology in Belgrade in 1975. In the late 1970s and early 1980s nephrologists started focusing on clinic, morphological and imunological research of glomerular disease. Pediatric nephrologists Prof. Milana Popović-Rolović and Prof. Angelina Čvorić were the first to be engaged in the treatment of this disease. The work Prof. Miodrag Sinđić, our first nephro pathologist, was partricularly significant.
There are currently nine University nephrology institutions in Serbia: in Belgrade (Clinical Centre of Serbia, Clinical Hospital Centre Zvezdara and Zemun, Military Medical Academy, University Children's Hospital, Institute for Health Protection of Mother and Child), in Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac and additional 51 sections or departments of nephrology and/or haemodialysis treatment all around Serbia.
THE FOUNDTION OF NEPHROLOGY SOCIETIES
The increasing number of physicians who were practicing nephrology led to the establishment of a society where they could unionize themselves. The Nephrology Section of the Serbian Medical Society was founded in 1967 and the sections of nephrology were also established within medical societies of former Yugoslav republics. A lot of scientific meetings which were focusing on kidney diseases, and particularly the research of endemic nephropathy and the exchange of ideas with colleagues abroad, led to an idea to found a society of nephrology within the Medical Societies of Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav Society of Nephrology was founded during the Third Symposium on Endemic Nephropathy, held in Niš from 5-8 November, 1975, when Academician Vojislav Danilović was elected the first president. The first scientific meeting of Yugoslav nephrologists with international participation was held in Struga, Republic of Macedonia, in 1977. The first Yugoslav Congress of Nephrology, organized by Yugoslav Society of Nephrology and the Nephrology Section of the Serbian Medical Society, was held in Belgrade in 1979. Since then, scientific meetings and congresses of the Yugoslav nephrologists were held on alternate years.
Congresses and Scientific Meetings Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
First Scientific Meeting of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The first scientific meeting of Yugoslav nephrology with international participation was held in Struga, Republic of Macedonia, on Ohrid Lake from 26-28 September, 1977. The scientific papers presented at the meeting were partially published in the Proceedings of the First Scientific Meeting, in the edition of Documents, e/12, 1977, of the Galenika pharmaceutical factory in Belgrade.
First Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The First Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology was held in Belgrade from 14-18 October, 1979. The Academician Vojislav Danilović was elected the president and Dragiša Velimirović the secretary general of the First Congress. A total of 219 papers were submitted and numerous lectures, round table discussions and free communications confirmed the that Yugoslav nephrology advanced and that the cooperation between Yugoslav and world renowned nephrologists was very successful. The leading nephrologists at the time took part in the Congress: Dr. E.L.Becker from New York, Dr. R.S. Cotran from Boston, Dr. J. Brod from Hanover, Dr. P.Ivanovich from Chicago, Dr. J. Roterbourg from Paris, nephropathologists Dr. L. Morel-Maroger from Paris, Dr. A.Bohle from Tübingen, Dr. J. Churg from New York, urologist Dr. J. Hodson from New Haven. The lectures and papers presented at the Congress were published in the Proceedings of the First Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology, in the edition of Galenika Documents, Belgrade.
Second Scientific Meeting of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The meeting was held in Dubrovnik from 7-10 October, 1981. Prof. Dr. Zdenko Radošević (1979-1983) was the Society president and Dr. Miljenko Marinković secretary general. In the meeting, the title “nephrologist” was for the first time bestowed upon the physicians who had been working longer than ten years in different fields of nephrology.
Second Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The Second Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology was held in Zagreb from 26-29 October, 1983. Prof. Dr. Zdenko Radošević was the Society president and Dr. Miljenko Marinković was the president of the Organizational Committee. The papers presented at the Second Congress were published in Medical News journal, no.11-12.
Third Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The Third Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology was held in Ljubljana from 4-6 December, 1985. Prof. Dr. Saša Luzar (1983-1985) was both the Society and Congress president and Doc. Dr. Jože Drinovec was the president of the Organizational Committee. Nearly all of the papers presented at the Congress were published in the Proceedings of the Congress.
Third Scientific Meeting of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The Meeting was held in Sarajevo in 1985. Prof. Dr. Momir Polenković (1985-1989) was the Society president and Prof. Dr Momir Macanović was the president of the Scientific Meeting. The papers presented at the Meeting were published in 1989 in Periodicum biologorum journal (no.4, volume 90) which was at that time quoted in Current Contens database.
Fourth Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The Fourth Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology was held in Skopje from 27-30 September, 1989. Prof. Dr. Momir Polenković was both the Society and Congress president. The papers presented at the Congress were published in the supplement 9 to the Macedonian Medical Review journal (volume 4).
Fourth Scientific Meeting of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The Meeting was held in Novi Sad from 3-6 June, 1992. Prof. Dr. Petar Tepavčević was the president and Prof. Dr. Dražen Fele the vice-president of the Scientific Meeting. Only Serbian nephrologists participated in the meeting. The papers presented at the Meeting were published in 1994 in the supplement 1 to the Medical Review journal (volume 17).
Fifth Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
After the breakup of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, at the beginning of 1993, members of the Presidency of Serbian and Montenegro Society of Nephrology held a meeting and made a decision to keep working under the existing name and to hold the next congress as the Fifth Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology in Belgrade from 5-8 October 1994. Doc. Dr. Dragiša Velimirović (1993-1996) was the Society president. Prof. Dr. Milana Popović-Rolović was the Fifth Congress president and Prof. Dr. Ljubica Djukanović was Scientific Committee president. A total of 218 papers were submitted for the Congress, which was attended by professors and our friends Michael Bewick from London, Marc de Broe from Antwerp and Jancu Sabo from Timisoara. The papers presented at the Congress were published in 1996 in the supplement 1 to the Serbian Archives of Medicine journal (volume 124).
Fifth Scientific Meeting of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The Meeting was held in Priština from 3-5 October, 1996. The president of the Scientific Meeting was Doc. Dr. Gordana Šubarić who, in spite of the hard times of financial crisis and a long period of isolation, succeeded in organizing the meeting that was a memorable experience for all participants because of its calm atmosphere and a series of outstanding lectures and presentations.
Sixth Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The sixth Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology, which was preceded by the Third Congress of Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs–BANTAO (1820 September) was held in Belgrade from 20 to 22 September, 1998. The Congress president was Prof. Dr. Vidojko Đorđević, who was the Society president as well, (1997-2002), and Prof. Dr. Ljubica Đukanović was the president of BANTA Association and Congress. These congesses gathered 218 physicians, among them 148 from Yugoslavia and 70 from the Balkan countries. The Congress was attended by eminent guests: ERA-EDTA president Fransois Berhtoux, International Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO) president Peter Ivanovis, International Faculty for Artificial Organs (INFA) president Horst Klinkmann, National Kidney Foundation(NKF) president Garabed Eknoyan. The lectures were also delivered by Marc de Broe from Antwerp, Joerg Vienkenfrom from Oberursel, Juan Manuel Lopes-Gomes and Fernando Liano from Madrid, and by the professors from university centres of the Balkan region: Gh. Gluvhovski from Timisoara, E.J.D. Mees and A. Basci from Izmir, H. Hasanoglu from Ankara, A. Nenov from Varna, M. Polenaković and K. Zafirovska from Skopje, D. Tončev from Sofia, Ch. Stathakis from Athens, as well as many other professors and distinguished nephrologists from Yugoslavia. A total of 85 papers were submitted for the national congress. The papers presented at the congresses were published in 1999 in Medical Research journal, no.1 and 2 (volume 33) and selected abstracts in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation journal (1999;14:2972-80).
Seventh Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology
The Seventh Congress of Yugoslav Society of Nephrology took place in Niš from 16-19 September 2002.The Society and Congress president was Prof. Dr. Vidojko Đorđević. The Congress was held under the auspices of ERA-EDTA, International Society of Nephrology and International (ISN) and Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO). All the members of BANTAO Council, professors A. Basci, Lj. Đukanović, D. Nenov, M. Polenaković, Ch. Statakis, took part in the Congress. A total of 211 participants from our country and 11 guests from the Balkan countries attended the Congress. There were over 100 oral presentations and 50 posters presented.
THE FOUNDATION OF SERBIAN AND MONTENEGRO SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
Since the Yugoslav Medical Association didn’t renew its activities in FR Yugoslavia, later Serbia and Montenegro, the Yugoslav Society of Nephrology was conducting its activities as an unregistered association. Therefore, at the meeting of the Council of the Society at the end of 2002, it was decided that Yugoslav Society of Nephrology would continue its work as the newly established Serbian and Montenegro Society of Nephrology. The Council’s proposal was accepted by the Society members at the meeting of Nephrology Section in January 2003. The Society President Prof. Dr Slobodan Čurić was assigned to process all the necessary arrangements required to register the society. Thus, on 24 November, 2004, the Serbian and Montenegro Society of Nephrology was listed in the Register of Citizens’ Association with the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights.
Two consecutive congresses were held in Novi Sad in 2006: the Danube Symposium of Nephrology and the First Serbian and Montenegro Congress of Nephrology, with the 340 participants, among them 160 from the neighbouring countries. Prof. Dr Slobodan Čurić was the president of both congresses and Prof. Dr Nada Dimković was the president of the Scientific Committee.
Danube Symposium of Nephrology
The Danube Symposium of Nephrology was held in Novi Sad (26-28 October 2006) on the 30th anniversary of this Symposium. There were 125 accepted abstracts from 12 countries: Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Croatia, Germany, Austria, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Lectures by 21 invited speakers from 17 countries, 33 oral presentations from 10 countries and 92 posters made the conference a success. Three posters received the traditional Bruno Watschinger Award. Selected abstracts were published in Kidney and Blood Pressure Research journal (2006; 29: 189-202).
First Serbian and Montenegro Congress of Nephrology
The First Serbian and Montenegro Congress of Nephrology was held in Novi Sad from 28 to 30 October, 2006. The Congress was attended by 10 international invited speakers and it included 22 oral presentations, 45 posters and 5 symposiums/lectures industry related. Two sessions were of particular importance: the session under the auspice of ERA-EDTA (Jorge Cannata Andia and Rosanna Coppo) and the COMGAN session (Juergen Floege, Paolo Schena, Allan Meyrier i Jerzy Chudek). The reviewed papers were published in Medical Review journal.
FOUNDATION OF SERBIAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
At the meeting of Serbian and Montenegro Society of Nephrology, held in Belgrade on 10 March, 2008, the society changed its name to Serbian Society of Nephrology. Prof. Dr Steva Plješa, until then the president of Serbian and Montenegro Society of Nephrology, was appointed the president of the Society.
First Serbian Congress of Nephrology
The First Serbian Congress of Nephrology was held at the Zira Hotel in Belgrade from 7 to 10 October, 2010. The Congress president was Prof. Dr Steva Plješa, the vice-presidents were professors Vidojko Đorđević and Slobodan Čurčić, the president of the Scientific Committee was Prof. Dr Nada Dimković. Lectures were delivered by eminent guests from abroad: John Cunningham, Juergen Floege, Francesco Locatelli, Raymond Vanholder and Eberhard Ritz, who held an honorary lecture at the opening ceremony. Famous nephrologists from our and neighbouring countries delivered lectures and further 47 oral presentations and 135 posters were presented.
Second Serbian Congress of Nephrology
The Second Serbian Congress of Nephrology was held at the Zira Hotel in Belgrade from 11 to 14 October, 2012. Prof. Dr Nada Dimković was the Society and Congress president, Prof. Dr Steva Plješa was the vice-president and Docent Dr Radomir Naumović was the president of the Scientific Committee. The president of the Selection Committee, which was for the first time introduced in the preparation of the congress, was Prof. Dr Igor Mitić. Lectures were delivered by eminent European nephrologists Daniel Abramowitz, Marc De Broe, Jorge Cannata Andia, Juergen Floege, Marcus Ketteler, Alain Meyrier, Raymond Vanholderas as well as nephrologists from university centres from Serbia and neighbouring countries. There were 55 oral presentations and 119 posters presented.
Third Serbian Congress of Nephrology
The third Serbian Congress of Nephrology was held in Belgrade from 23 to 26 October, 2014 at the Crowne Plaza Hotel. Prof. Dr Sanja Simić-Ogrizović was the Congress and Society president, Prof. Dr Radomir Naumović was the president of the Scientific Committee and Prof. Dr Dragan Jovanović was the president of Selection Committee. Notable European scientists Duška Dragun, Fabio Galli, Michel Jadoul, Loreto Gesualdo, Lluis Uiardo, Marcus Ketteler as well as professors and their collaborators from Serbia and neighbouring countries took part in the Congress. A total of 377 participants were registered, 42 papers and 113 posters were presented. Particularly noticeable were the confrontations of nephrologists and doctors who specialize in different fields, and the round table “Problems from the region” with the participation of lecturers from all former Yugoslav republics.